Calculates Delay, Velocity Factor, Effective Dielectric Constant and Characteristic Impedance of a PCB track. This calculator can also be used for measuring coaxial cable and will then give Relative Dielectric Constant rather than Effective Dielectric Constant. The operation of this calculator can be better understood by first reading Measuring Characteristic Impedance and Effective Dielectric Constant of PCB tracks using a Vector Network Analyser

The time delay (t_{a}) at a + 90^{0} point is found by dividing the total phase shift at the measured + 90^{0} point by
the phase shift per second due to frequency

Formula 1.

Where f is the frequency in Hz at + 90^{0}

rev is the number of completed revolutions of phase before the + 90^{0} point is reached

Similarly the time delay (t_{b}) at a - 90^{0} point is found by dividing the total phase shift at the measured - 90^{0}
point by the phase shift per second due to frequency

Formula 2.

The average time delay (t_{av}) for + 90^{0} and - 90^{0} is then

Formula 3.

Finding the Velocity Factor

Equivalent delay in free space for a similar distance

Formula 4.

Where l is the length of the track in mm

c is the speed of light in free space

Formula 5.

Formula 6.

An average of the measurement frequencies is found

Formula 7.

The principal of deriving the Characteristic Impedance from an OPEN and SHORT measurement is based on Transmission Lines and Networks by Walter C. Johnson, McGraw-Hill 1963 p155 Para 4.7 Measurement of the Characteristics of lines.

Formula 8

This calculation is combined for two adjacent measurements and so ripple (measurement error) caused by the mismatch of the VNA to the transmission line is also removed.

Formula 9.

W J Highton Updated 4/4/2008

This calculator is provided free by Chemandy Electronics in order to promote the FLEXI-BOX

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